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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice or Microsoft Word document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines


Style Guide for Authors

African Music (ISSN 0065-4019) is an accredited annual peer-reviewed journal published by the International Library of African Music, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa. The journal publishes articles from original research, not previously published that are contextualized studies of African music and music with its roots in Africa such as diaspora styles.

 The Editor welcomes submissions of articles, and book, CD and DVD reviews.

 Authors must use Times New Roman font (12 pt for the article text; 10 pt for figure captions and footnotes). Articles must be submitted as Word documents via email to the editor at l.watkins@ru.ac.za or http://journal.ru.ac.za/index.php/africanmusic/index after registration.

 ABSTRACTS must be placed at the beginning of the article. The abstract should be in one paragraph, have no more than 250 words, and include, the overall purpose of the study and the research problem; a coherent argument and knowledge of previous research; the basic approach to the research; major finding as a result of the analysis; a brief summary of interpretations and a conclusion. The abstract should serve as a surrogate for the article.

 All AUTHOR NAMES must be REMOVED from footnotes. If and when necessary, write (author) instead of the name.

 All authors must SEEK PERMISSION to use images, scores, and transcriptions, if they belong to another source.

 Formatting must follow the style guidelines as indicated below:



1) First page

Title: Upper case BOLD

by lower case italics - not bold

Author’s name: all Upper Case – straight text – not bold





2) Headings

Section/topic Headings: Use sentence case, which means ONLY the first letter of the first word of the heading is in upper case), the entire heading must be bold.

Example of heading: Performance contexts

3) Citations

USE In-text citations, not footnotes or endnotes to cite publications, interviews and pers. comm. – as shown below:

Several pubs: (Hale 1994, Schultz 2001, Duran 2000) Note: no comma after author surname

Single pub: w/ year only (Duran 2000) w/ year & p# (Duran 2000: 45) multiple pp#s (Duran 2000: 22-27, 33) Note: space after colon

Interview: If person’s name does not appear in the preceding text, then it is: (A. Tracey interview 1 June 2015)

Interview: If person’s name appears in the preceding text, then it is: (Interview 1 June 2015)

Interview sourced from website article or blog: (if author’s name is given state author’s surname and year article was uploaded. If no author’s name is given put web address inside parenthesis (http://kizitoartsmovement.blogspot.com/2012/08/tendai-maraire.html). Make sure the font remains the same.

 Pers. Comm. in text: (A. Tracey pers. comm. 4 Aug. 2015)

‘See also’ reference to a publication in text (cf Berliner 1978)

4) Footnotes

Use Footnotes, not Endnotes. Use footnotes sparingly and make them as brief as possible.

NOTE: In the body of the article and in footnotes all foreign words must be in italics.

Font type in footnotes is Times New Roman with font size 10.

5) Formatting Paragraphs

The first line of the first paragraph immediately under a heading is NOT indented; thereafter, the first line of a new paragraph is indented 5 spaces until the end of the section.

6) Line Spacing

Do not space down an extra line for new paragraph but indent the first sentence of the new paragraph 5 spaces.

Space down an extra line after the end of a paragraph when it is followed by a new section heading, but do not add a space after the heading. Begin paragraph text in the first line immediately under the heading.

7) Figures

All illustrations are given figure numbers including transcriptions, maps, photos. Do not use the word Example or Photo. Use Figure for all illustrations, no matter what kind.

Authors must always credit their source of figures e.g. transcriptions, maps, photos.

Figure caption example: Figure 3. “Gganga alula” tone cycle split into okunaga and okwawula.

Photo caption example with photographer credit: Figure 1. The nnanga. Photo by author.

Figure 2. Early Kwanongoma soprano marimba. Photo by Garth Meske.

Figure with an example of a transcription: Figure 2. Transcription by author. If not transcribed by author then it is: Figure 2. Transcription by Andrew Tracey.

Figure with an example of a composition: Figure 3. “Name of composition”. Score by composer, with permission. If not the author’s composition. OR Figure 3. “Name of composition”. Score by author. If the author’s composition.

If date given: Figure 4. A female performer of KAKAU band at the World AIDS Day, Buyekela, Bukoba, 1 December 2008. Photo by author.

Referring to a Figure in the text: (see Figure 3)

Ensure that the Figure is placed at the exact point where it is first mentioned.

8) Referencing (use the word References – not Bibliography as the heading for the reference list – make it bold and align left). Keep references to your own publications to a minimum.


Book and thesis titles must be in italics, not bold and end with a full stop.

Song titles in text must be straight text except for foreign-language words and inside quotes/inverted commas.

Journal titles (names of journals) in the reference list must be in italics, not bold and have NO punctuation following them.

Headings beneath Reference list - capitalize only first letter of the heading eg Discography, Filmography, Interviews by author, Websites, Blogs.



Roseman. Marina

1991 Healing Sounds from the Malaysian Rainforest. Berkeley: University of

California Press.

Lucia, Christine, ed.

2005 The World of South African Music: A Reader. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholar Press.


Broughton, Simon, Mark Ellingham, Richard Trillo and Orla Duane

2002 World Music: The Rough Guide, Vol. 2. London: Rough Guides Publishing.



Caffery, Joshua

2013. Traditional Music in Coastal Louisiana: The Lomax Recordings. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. http://encore.seals.ac.za/iii/encore_ru/record/C_C__Rb2691096__STraditional%20Music__Orightresult__U__X6?lang=eng&suite=ru.


Journal articles

Axelsson, Olof E.

1973 “Kwanongoma College of Music: Rhodesian Music Centre for Research and Education.” Svensk Tidskrift för Musikforskning 49(4): 59-67.

Cohn, Bernard S. and Nicholas B. Dirks

1988 “Beyond the Fringe: The Nation State, Colonialism, and the Technologies of Power.” Journal of Historical Sociology 1(2): 224–29.


On-line Journal articles – same format as in-print journals but instead of pp#s at end of entry add online identifier – “doi” number and end with a full stop.


Book chapters

Feld, Steven

1996 “Waterfalls of Song: An Acoustemology of Place Resounding in Bosavi, Papua New Guinea.” In Sense of Place, Steven Feld and Keith Basso, eds. 1-63. Santa Fe: SAR Press.

McNeill, Fraser G. and Deborah James

2011 “Singing Songs of AIDS in Venda, South Africa.” In The Culture of AIDS in Africa: Hope and Healing Through the Arts, Gregory Barz and Judah Cohen, eds. 193-212. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


More than one publication by same author (chronological order, from oldest to most recent)

Axelsson, Olof E.

1973 “Kwanongoma College of Music: Rhodesian Music Centre for Research and Education.” Svensk Tidskrift för Musikforskning LV: 59-67.

1974 “Historical Notes on Neo-African Church Music.” Zambezia 3(20): 89-102.

1985 “Zimbabwe’s Melodious Marimba.” Africa Calls from Zimbabwe 150: 26-27.



Porter, Gerald

1992 “The English Occupational Song.” Ph D Dissertation: Acta Universitatis Umensis, Sweden.

If the PhD is pending

Gargett, Eric

Pend. “The English Occupational Song.” PhD Dissertation: Acta Universitatis Umensis, Sweden.



Citations of reviews include the following elements, if present: name of reviewer; title of the review; the words ‘Review of’, followed by the name of the work reviewed and its author/composer/performer; Location and date (in the case of a performance); and the listing of the periodical in which the review appeared. Unsigned reviews are alphabetized by the name of the periodical in which they appear.

Diehl, Matt

2011 Metallica, Slayer Make Desert Roar at Epic Metal Summit. Review of 23

April “Big 4” Concert in Indio, California. Rolling Stone 26 May 2011, 22.

Everist, Mark

2009 Review of the Oxford History of Western Music, by Richard Taruskin.

Journal of the American Musicological Society 62: 699-720.



Many scores are treated like books, though often with the addition of an editor. If in addition to an author there are names of editors or translators, they will appear after the title preceded by Edited by or Translated by. If the score was accessed online, add the URL (followed by a full stop) at the end of the citation.

Kaplan, Anthony, Kobus Malan, et al.

2010 “Oboe in Africa”. Turnaround Music. CDHMP (EAS) 001 Dream

Sequence, Opus 224.


Liner notes

If the notes are unsigned (that is, no author is indicated), simply add ―Liner notes. to the end of the citation of the recording. Signed notes may be cited by the author’s name.

Barz, Gregory

2010 Inanga: A Song of Survival in a Daughter’s Rwanda. Lime Pulp Records, CD, DVD.

Conference Papers/Proceedings

Have a bibliographic entry for the paper cited and the proceedings. Treat a keynote speech or poster session like a paper but write ‘Keynote speech presented’ instead of ‘Paper presented’. Treat any lecture or speech in the same way.


Gibbons, Rawle


1987 “The Second Coming: The Orisha Factor in the Emergence of the

Steelband in Trinidad and Tobago.” Paper presented at the Fifth World

Congress of Orisa Tradition and Culture, San Fancisco, California, August 7-10.


Magazine Articles



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