Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Azawan: precolonial musical culture and Saharawi nationalism in the refugee camps of the Hamada Desert in Algeria

Luis Gimenez Amoros

Abstract


This article analyses Saharawi music as performed for the refugee community in the camps. I argue that the construction and evolution of Saharawi music in the camps is divided into two main areas: nationalism in relation to the decolonisation of Western Sahara, and maintenance of cultural values in Saharawi music found in the historical retention of the Haul modal system originating in precolonial Saharawi culture. Local audiences use the term Azawan to define the combination of nationalist sentiments and retention of their precolonial musical culture in Saharawi music.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barbulo, Tomas 2002 La historia prohibida del Sahara Espanol. Barcelona: Ediciones Destino.

Baroja, Julio 1990 Estudios Saharianos. Madrid: Ediciones Jucar.

Baily, John 2005 “So near, so far: Kabul’s music in exile.” Ethnomusicology Forum 14(2): 213-233.

Boddy-Evans, Alistair n.d. http://africanhistory.about.eom/od/panafricanists/a/qts-SekouToure.htm [accessed 6 November 2013].

Charry, Eric, ed. 2012 Hip hop Africa: New African music in a globalizing world. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Mande music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

“Plucked lutes in West Africa: An historical overview” The Galpin Society Journal 49: 3-37.

Cleaveland, Timothy 1998 “Islam and the construction of social identity in the nineteenthcentury Sahara.” The Journal of African History 39(3): 365-368.

De la Courbe, Sier 1913 Premier voyage du Sieur de la Courbe fa it a la costed'Afriqueen 1685. Paris: Palais Culturel.

Duran, Lucy 1999 “Mali.” In World Music, the rough guide: Africa, Europe and the Middle East (Vol. 1). S. Broughton, M. Ellingham & R. Trillo, eds. London: Rough Guide Publisher, 539-563.

Fanon, Frantz 1963 “Reciprocal bases of national culture and the fight for freedom.” In The wretched of the earth.New York: Grove Press.

Fynn, Veronica P. 2011 “Africa’s last colony: Sahrawi people - refugees, IDPS and nationals?” Journal of Internal Displacement 1(2): 40-58.

Gibson, Nigel C. 2003 Fanon: The postcolonial imagination. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Gimenez Amoros, Luis 2012 “Haul music: Transnationalism and musical performance in the Saharaui refugee camps of Tindouf, Algeria” MMus thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown.

Hakovirta, Harto. 1993 “The global refugee problem: A model and its application.” International Political Science Review 14(1): 35-57.

Katumanga, Musambayi 2007 “Folk poetry as a weapon of struggle: an analysis of the Chaka M chaka resistance songs of the national resistance movement/ army Uganda.” In Songs and politics in eastern Africa. K.Njogu& H. Moupeu, eds. Nairobi: MkukinaNyota Publishers, 129-157.

Lohman, Laura 2010 Um Khulthum: Artistic agency and the shaping o f an Arab legend. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Lopes,Paul D. 1999 “Diffusion and syncretism: the modern jazz tradition” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 556: 25-36.

Lopez, Bernabe 1999 “El Sahara, Espaha y Marruecos: Historia de undesencuentro.” Politica Exterior 13(70): 21-26.

Lopez. Maria 2006 “E lpapel de la OUA en el conflicto del Sahara Occidental y su influencia en el desarrollo politico de la RASD.” Trabajos y Ensayos 2: 1-10.

Lucia, Christine 2002 “Abdullah Ibrahim and the uses of memory” British Journal o f Ethnomusicology 11(2): 125-143.

Marcus, Scott & Solis, Ted 2004 “Can’t help but speak, can’t help but play” (interview to Ali Jihad Racy). In Performing ethnomusicology: Teaching and representation in world music ensembles. T. Solis, ed. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 155-167.

Mercer, John 1976 Spanish Sahara. London: Allen and Unwin.

Moore, Robin 2003 “Transformation in Cuban Nueva Trova, 1965-95.” Ethnomusicology 47(1): 1-41.

Nikiprowetzky, Tolia 1962 “The music of Mauritania.” Journal o f the International Folk Music 14: 53-55.

O’ Connell , John M. 2010 “Introduction: Music and conflict.” In Music and conflict. J. Morgan O’Connell & S. El-Shawan Castelo-Branco, eds. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1-13.

Oloo, Adams 2007 “Song and politics: The case of D. Owino Misiani.” In Songs and politics in eastern Africa. K. Njogu & H. Moupeu, eds. Nairobi: Mkukina Nyota Publishers, 177-201.

Martin, Pablo San 2009 “Estos locos cubarauis!: The Hispanisation of Saharawi society ( ...after Spain).” Journal of Transatlantic Studies 7(3): 249-263.

Mphande, Lupenga 2007 “If you are ugly, know how to sing: Aesthetics of resistance and subversion.” In Songs and politics in eastern Africa. Kimani Njogu and Herve Moupeu, eds. Nairobi: Mkukina Nyota Publishers, 377-400.

Sayeh, Ismail 1998 Les sahraouis. Paris: Editions L’Harmattan.

Vaquer, Jordi 2007 “Espana y el Sahara Occidental: La dimension bipartidista.” Revista CIDOB d'afers internacionals 79/80: 124-144.

Zolberg, Aristide R., Astri Suhrke, and Sergio Aguayo 1986 “International factors in the formation of refugee movements.” International Migration Review 20(2): 151-169.

Zunes, Stephen 1987 “Nationalism and Non-Alignment: The Non-Ideology of the Polisario.” Africa Today 34(3): 33-46.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21504/amj.v10i1.1225

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY OF AFRICAN MUSIC, Rhodes University

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.