Xizambi friction-bow music of the Shangana-Tsonga

  • Thomas Johnston
Keywords: Ethnomusicology -- South Africa, Tsonga (African people) -- Music, Musical bow -- South Africa


Tsonga drums, antelope horns, leg-rattles and whistles are generally used to accompany ritual dancing within the context of two of the three ritual institutions: khomba (puberty school) and mancomane (doctor’s ceremonies). Ngoma (circumcision school) is secret and therefore avoids their use. Use may occur, however, within the context of three non-ritual musical institutions: mine dances, beer-drinks and xigubu (boys’ drumming school). Two other forms of musical activity — those of work songs and children’s songs — rarely employ instruments.


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How to Cite
Johnston, T. “Xizambi Friction-Bow Music of the Shangana-Tsonga”. African Music: Journal of the International Library of African Music, Vol. 4, no. 4, Aug. 1970, pp. 81-95, doi:https://doi.org/10.21504/amj.v4i4.1683.