NEGOTIATING MUSICAL CULTURES IN COLONIAL HYMNODY: ANALYSING LOCALISED HARMONISATIONS OF WESTERN HYMN TUNES
AbstractThis essay analyses localised hymn tunes from the College of the Transfiguration (Anglican seminary) in Grahamstown, South Africa. Through several examples, it is demonstrated how western and southern African musical systems have intersected, with particular reference to aspects of harmony which have been re-interpreted to conform to local norms. Three features emerge as dominant markers of localisation: parallel harmonisation, localised westernisms and the skipping-third process. The musical meaning of the localisation process as it takes place at the College of Transfiguration is discussed. Transcriptions of performances show that the melodic norms of western hymnody are maintained, while the harmonic underpinning are radically transformed, suggesting that the meaning is not located in one particular tradition, but represents a sense of cultural flux.
Anglican Church of Southern Africa. 1995. Amaculo Esheshi. Johannesburg: HarperCollins.
Anglican Church of Southern Africa. 2007. Iculo Lase-Tshetshi Ne-Ngoma. Johannesburg: Harper Collins.
Anglican Church of Southern Africa. 2013. Difela Tsa Kereke Le Dikopelo Tsa Tsona. Johannesburg: Harper Collins.
Barz, Gregory F. 2003. Performing Religion: Negotiating Past and Present in Kwaya Music of Tanzania. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi.
Bethke, Andrew-John. Forthcoming. “Signs of Localisation in South African Anglican Church Music.” In Locating Christian Congregational Music: Indigeneity, Cosmopolitanism and Diversity, M. Ingalls, M. Reigersberg and Z. Serinian, eds. Farnham: Ashgate.
Blacking, John. 1987 “Intention and Change in the Performance of European Hymns in Some South African Churches.” Miscellanea Musicologica 12: 193–200.
Blacking, John. 1995 “The Music of Politics.” In Music, Culture, and Experience: Selected Papers of John Blacking, R. Byron, ed. 198–222. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dargie, Dave. 1982 “The Music of Ntsikana.” South African Journal of Musicology 2: 7–27.
Dargie, Dave. 1988. Xhosa Music: Its Techniques and Instruments, with a Collection of Songs. Cape Town: David Philip.
Ekwumeme, Lazarus Nnanyelu. 1973/4 “African Music in Christian Liturgy: The Igbo Experiment.” African Music 5(3): 12–33.
Erlmann, Veit. 1996. Nightsong: Performance, Power and Practice in South Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hellberg, Jan. 2010 “To Worship God in Our Way: Disaffection and Localisation in the Music Culture of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia.” Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa 7(1): 17–50.
Hymns Ancient and Modern (New Standard). 1983. London: Hymns Ancient and Modern Limited.
Kapchan, Deborah A. and Pauline Turner Strong. 1999 “Theorizing the Hybrid.” The Journal of American Folklore 112 (445): 239–253.
Kidula, Jean Ngoya. 2013. Music in Kenyan Christianity: Logooli Religious Song. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Kloppers, Elsabé. 1999 “Kerkmusiek—‘n Beskeie bydrae?” Twintigste Eeu Hervormde Teologie, D. J. C. van Wyk, ed., 286–300. Pretoria: Sentik.
Kloppers, Elsabé. 2000 “’n Nuwe Psalmomdigting in Afrikaans: Uitganspunte, Beleid, Problem.” HTS Theological Studies 56 (1): 192–204.
Kloppers, Elsabé. 2007 “The Hymnic Identities of the Afrikaaner.” In Music and Identity: Transformation and Negotiation, E. Akrofi, M. Smit and S. Thorsén, eds., 181–196. Stellenbosch: Sun Press.
Kompridis, Nikolas. 2005 “Normativizing Hybridity/Neutralizing Culture.” Political Theory 33(3): 318–343.
Kubik, Gerhard. 1994. Theory of African Music (Volume One). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lagerwall, Renée. 1996. Contemporary Attitudes Towards Music in South African Protestant Churches. Master of Musicology Dissertation: UNISA.
Long, Kenneth R. 1971. The Music of the English Church. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Methodist Church of Southern Africa 1987 Sing Together. Cape Town: Methodist Publishing House.
Muller, Carol A. 1999. Rituals of Fertility and the Sacrifice of Desire: Nazarite Women’s Performance in South Africa. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Muller, Carol A. 2008a. Music in South Africa (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Muller, Carol, ed. 2008b. The Hymns of the Nazaretha. Composed by Isaiah and Galilee Shembe. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.
No author. 2000. Common Praise. London: Canterbury Press
No author. 1906. The English Hymnal. London: Oxford University Press.
Nzewi, Meki. 1997. African Music: Theoretical Content and Creative Continuum. Olderhausen: Institut für Didaktik populärer Musik.
Olwage, Grant. 2006 “John Knox Bokwe, Colonial Composer: Tales about Race and Music.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 131 (1): 1–37.
Pewa, Elliot Sagila. 1984 “The Chorus”—A Re-Africanisation of Hymn Singing in Schools and Churches. Bachelor of Art Honours Thesis: University of Natal.
Scott, Joyce. 2009. Moving into African Music, Cape Town: Pretext.
Temperley, Nicholas. 1979. The Music of the English Parish Church (Volume One). London: Cambridge University Press.
United Methodist Hymnal. 1989. Nashville: United Methodist Publishing House.
Wells, Robin E. 1994. An Introduction to the Music of the Basotho. Morija: Morija Museum and Archives.
Wood, Peter and Emma Wild-Wood. 2004 “One Day We Will Sing in God’s Home: Hymns and Songs Sung in the Anglican Church in North-East Congo (DRC).” Journal of Religion in Africa 34(1–2): 145–176.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.