KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER: INDIGENOUS AFRICAN MUSIC IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MUSIC CURRICULUM
AbstractThe need for redress in South African education includes calls for the decolonisation of the curriculum. In music education, this could imply a straight forward swap of content, replacing the ‘hegemonic’ Western classical canon with orally transmitted musical traditions in Africa. However, the picture clouds somewhat when the epistemological framework of the discipline of (Western) music is retained for the ‘decolonised’ curriculum, as this results in a disjuncture between the practice of African music and the way it is understood on a conceptual level in the curriculum. Drawing on the theories of Basil Bernstein and Karl Maton, this article probes the nature of the knowledge articulated in the South African secondary school, the basis of its specialisation, and its potential to equip students with knowledge that allows boundary crossing.
Agawu, Kofi. 2003. Representing African Music: Postcolonial Notes, Queries, Positions. New York: Routledge.
Agawu, Kofi. 2016. The African Imagination in Music. New York: Oxford University Press.
Akuno, Emily Achieng’. 2005 “To ‘Sing the Lord’s Song in a Strange Land’: Music in the Education of the Kenyan Child.” in Emerging Solutions for Musical Arts Education in Africa, Anri Herbst, ed. 54–63. Cape Town: African Minds.
Bantwini, Bongani D. 2010. “How Teachers Perceive the New Curriculum Reform: Lessons from a School District in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.” International Journal of Educational Development 30: 83–90.
Berliner, Paul. 1978. The Soul of Mbira: Music and Traditions of the Shona People of Zimbabwe. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bernstein, Basil. 1975. Class, Codes and Control (Vol. 3): Toward a Theory of Educational Transmissions. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Bernstein, Basil. 1990. Class, codes and control (Vol. 4): The structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge.
Bernstein, Basil. 2000 Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research, Critique. New York and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bertram, Carol. 2012 “Bernstein’s Theory of the Pedagogic Device as a Frame to Study History Curriculum Reform in South Africa.” Yesterday and Today 7: 1–11.
Blacking, John. 1976. How Musical Is Man? London: Faber and Faber.
Bolton, Heidi. 2006 “Pedagogy, Subjectivity and Mapping Judgement in Art, a Weakly Structured Field of Knowledge.” Journal of Education 40: 59–78.
Carroll, Christine.2017 “Playing the Field: An Australian Case Study of Student Popular Musicians’ Informal Learning in Senior Secondary Classroom Music Education.” PhD Dissertation: University of Sydney, Sydney.
Chadwick, Sheelagh. 2012 “Teachers as Agents in Botswana’s Music Education: Challenges and Possibilities.” Music Education Research 14(4): 430–47.
Chanhunka, Robert A. 2005 “Music Education In Malawi: The Crisis And The Way Forward.” PhD Dissertation: University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
Chernoff, John Miller. 1979. African Rhythm, African Sensibility: Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical Idioms. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dargie, David. 1988. Xhosa Music: Its Techniques and Instruments with a Collection of Songs. Cape Town: David Philip.
Delport, Alette, and Josphat Mufute. 2010 “Training the Non-Specialist Music Teacher: Insights from a Zimbabwean Case Study.” Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa 7(1): 1–15.
Department of Education. 2011. Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) Music. Pretoria: Government printer.
Diop, Cheikh Anta. 1996. Towards the African Renaissance: Essays in African Culture and Development 1946 - 1960. London: Karnak House.
Drummond, Urvi. 2015 “Music education in South African schools after apartheid: teacher perceptions of Western and African Music.” PhD Dissertation: University of Glasgow, Glasgow.
Elliot, David J. 1995. Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ensor, Paula. 1997 “School Mathematics, Everyday Life and the NQF: A Case of Non-Equivalence?” Pythagorus 41: 36–44.
Ensor, Paula, and J Galant. 2005 “Knowledge and Pedagogy: Sociological Research in Mathematics Education in South Africa.” in Researching Mathematics Education in South Africa. Perspectives, Practices and Possibilities, R. Vithal, J. Adler and C. Keitel, eds. Pretoria: HSRC Press.
Gamble, Jeanne. 2001 “Modelling the Invisible: The Pedagogy of Craft Apprenticeship.” Studies in Continuing Education 23(2): 185–200.
Gatien, Greg. 2009 “Categories and Music Transmission.” Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education 8(2): 94–119.
Green, Lucy. 2001. How Popular Musicians Learn: A way ahead for Music Education. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate.
Green, Lucy. 2008. Music, Informal Learning and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate.
Hellberg, Elsabie. 2014 “A Critical Review of South Africa’s Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement Grades 10-12 Music.” Masters dissertation: University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.
Herbst, Anri, Meki Nzewi and Kofi Agawu, eds. 2003. Musical Arts in Africa: Theory, Practice and Education. Pretoria, South Africa: UNISA.
Herbst, Anri, ed. 2005. Emerging Solutions for Musical Arts Education in Africa. Cape Town: African Minds.
Hoadley, Ursula. 1997 “An Analysis of the Constitution of a School Subject through Recontextualising; the Case of the NAC Drama Syllabus.” Masters Dissertation: University of Cape Town, Cape Town.
Hoadley, Ursula. 2005 “Social Class, Pedagogy and the Specialization of Voice in Four South African Primary Schools.” PhD Dissertation: University of Cape Town, Cape Town.
Hoadley, Ursula. 2011 “Knowledge, Knowers and Knowing: Curriculum Reform in South Africa.” in Curriculum in Today’s World: Configuring Knowledge, Identities, Work and Politics, Lyn Yates and M. Grumet, eds. 139–54. Abingdon: Routledge.
Irivwieri, Godwin Ogheneruemu. 2009 “The Implementation of the Creative Arts Curriculum in Secondary Schools in Nigeria.” African Research Review 3(3): 342–58.
Jackson, Fiona. 2015 “Using Legitimation Code Theory to Track Pedagogic Practice in a South African English Home Language Poetry Lesson.” Journal of Education 63.
Kwami, Robert. 1998 “Non-Western Musics in Education: Problems and Possibilities.” British Journal of Music Education 15(2): 161–70.
Kwami, Robert, Eric Akrofi and S. Adams. 2003 “Integrating Musical Arts Cultures.” in Musical Arts in Africa Theory: Practice and Education, Anri Herbst, Meki Nzewi and Kofi Agawu, eds. 261–78. Pretoria: UNISA.
Lamont, Alexandra, and Karl Maton. 2010 “Unpopular Music: Beliefs and Behaviours towards Music in Education.” in Sociology and Music Education, Ruth Wright, ed. 63–80. Farnham: Ashgate.
Ligoya, Mildred Alinane. 2013 “An Exposition of Musical Arts Education in Malawi.” Masters Dissertation: University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.
Luckett, Kathy, and Aditi Hunma. 2014 “Making Gazes Explicit: Facilitating Epistemic Access in the Humanities.” Higher Education 67: 183–98.
Mans, Minette E. 1997 “Namibian Music and Dance as Ngoma in Arts Education.” PhD Dissertation: University of Natal, Durban.
Mapana, Kedmon. 2013 “Musical Traditions in the School Curriculum: Attitudes of Tanzanian Music Educators.” PhD Dissertation: Seattle Pacific University, Seattle WA.
Martin, Jodie. 2012 “On Notes and Knowers: The Representation, Legitimation and Evaluation of Jazz.” PhD Dissertation: University of Adelaide, Adelaide.
Maton, Karl. 2014. Knowledge and Knowers: Towards a Realist Sociology of Education. Abingdon: Routledge.
McConnachie, Boudina. 2016 “Indigenous and Traditional Musics in the School Classroom: A Re-Evaluation of the South African Indigenous African Music (IAM) Curriculum.” PhD Dissertation: Rhodes University, Grahamstown. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10962/6806.
McPhail, Graham J. 2012 “The Canon or the Kids: Teachers and the Recontextualisation of Classical and Popular Music in the Secondary School Curriculum.” PhD Dissertation: University of Auckland, Auckland.
McPhail, Graham J. 2013 “The Canon or the Kids: Teachers and the Recontextualisation of Classical and Popular Music in the Secondary School Curriculum.” Research Studies in Music Education 35(1): 7–20.
McPhail, Graham J. 2014 “The Right to Enhancement: Students Talking about Music Knowledge in the Secondary School.” The Curriculum Journal 25(3): 306–25.
Moore, Gwen. 2013 “Musical Value, Ideology and Unequal Opportunity: Backgrounds, Assumptions and Experiences of Students and Lecturers in Irish Higher Education.” PhD Dissertation: University of London Institute of Education, London.
Muller, Johan. 2007 “On Splitting Hairs: Hierarchy, Knowledge and the School Curriculum.” in Language, Knowledge and Pedagogy, Frances Christie and J. R. Martin, eds. 65–86. London: Continuum.
Mumpuka, Aloysio. 2009 “The Status of Music Education in the Selected High Schools in Lusaka Province, Zambia.” Masters Dissertation: North-West University, Potchefstroom.
Musakula, Franklins Mwansa. 2014 “An Exploration into the Teaching of African Music in Two Primary Colleges of Education in Zambia.” Masters Dissertation: Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo.
Myers, L. Peta. 2016 “Knowledge Structures and Their Relevance for Teaching and Learning in Introductory Financial Accounting.” South African Journal of Accounting Research 30(1): 79–95.
Nketia, J. H. Kwabena. 1975. The Music of Africa. London: Gollancz.
Ntsihlele, Flora. 1982 “Zulu Children’s Songs.” Honours Paper: University of Natal, Durban.
Nzewi, Meki. 2003 “Acquiring Knowledge of the Musical Arts in Traditional Society.” in Musical Arts in Africa: Theory, Practice and Education, Anri Herbst, Meki Nzewi and Kofi Agawu, eds. Pretoria: UNISA.
Nzewi, Meki. 2005. Learning the Musical Arts in Contemporary Africa: Derived by Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Vol. I. CIIMDA.
Oehrle, Elizabeth. 2013 “The Talking Drum: Towards the Dissemination of Musics in South Africa.” Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa 10(1): 135–38.
Philpott, Chris and Ruth Wright. 2012 “Teaching, Learning, and Curriculum Content.” in The Oxford Handbook of Music, Gary McPherson and Graham Welch, eds. 441–59. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sætre, Jon Helge. 2014 “Preparing Generalist Student Teachers to Teach Music: A Mixed-Methods Study of Teacher Educators and Educational Content in Generalist Teacher Education Music Courses.” PhD Dissertation: Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo.
Schudel, Ingrid. 2014 “Exploring a Knowledge-Focused Trajectory for Researching Environmental Learning in the South African Curriculum.” Southern African Journal of Environmental Education 30: 96–117.
Shalem, Yael and Lynne Slonimsky. 2010 “Seeing Epistemic Order: Construction and Transmission of Evaluative Criteria.” British Journal of Sociology of Education 31(6): 755–78.
Siebörger, Ian and Ralph D. Adendorff 2015 “Resemiotizing Concerns from Constituencies in the South African Parliament.” Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 33(2): 171–97.
Small, Christopher. 1984. Music of the Common Tongue: Survival and Celebration in Afro-American Music. London: Calder.
South African Department of Basic Education. 2014a “Music Examination Guidelines Grade 12.” Department of Basic Education Republic of South Africa.
South African Department of Basic Education. 2014b “Music Guidelines for Practical Assessment Tasks.” Department of Basic Education Republic of South Africa.
Swanwick, Keith. 1994. Musical Knowledge: Intuition, Analysis, and Music Education. London: Routledge.
Swanwick, Keith and Joyce Tillman. 1986 “The Sequence of Musical Development: A Study of Children’s Composition.” British Journal of Music Education 3(3): 305–39.
Weekes, Patricia. 2014 “From Dot Points to Disciplinarity: The Theory and Practice of Disciplinary Literacies in Secondary Schooling.” PhD Dissertation: University of Sydney, Sydney.
Woodford, Paul. 2005. Democracy and Music Education: Liberalism, Ethics, and the Politics of Practice. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Wright, Ruth. 2008 “Kicking the Habitus: Power, Culture and Pedagogy in the Secondary School Music Curriculum.” Music Education Research 10(3): 389–402.
Wright, Ruth and Brian Davies. 2010 “Class, Power, Culture and the Music Curriculum.” in Sociology and Music Education, Ruth Wright, ed. 35–50. Farnham: Ashgate.
Wright, Ruth and Hildegard Froehlich. 2012 “Basil Bernstein’s Theory of the Pedagogic Device and Formal Music Schooling: Putting the Theory into Practice.” Theory Into Practice 51(3): 212–20.
Personal communication with author Khemese, Millicent. 3 February 2017.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.