African Music: Journal of the International Library of African Music <p><cite>African Music</cite> (ISSN 0065-4019) is an annual, peer reviewed, accredited, academic journal established in 1954 by Hugh Tracey, founder of the International Library of African Music. The journal publishes original articles, not previously published, pertaining to contextualized studies of African music and related arts. Since it was re-launched in 2007 it features a CD compilation of audio examples illustrating the articles in each edition, which generally consists of field recordings from the article authors' research.</p> International Library of African Music (ILAM), Rhodes University en-US African Music: Journal of the International Library of African Music 0065-4019 African Music: Journal of the International Library of African Music, Vol. 10, No. 3 (2017) ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 [1 3] From the editor Lee Watkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 4 6 IN A WORLD OF THEIR OWN: MEMORY AND IDENTITY IN THE FISHING SONGS OF A MIGRANT EWE COMMUNITY IN GHANA <p>The musical traditions of the southern Ewe of Ghana; particularly the Anlo, have been subject to a substantial amount of research. Existing research has focused on Anlo musical traditions as practiced in its original context. Comparably little is known about these musical traditions as performed by Anlo migrants living and working among a linguistically and culturally different ethnic group. Furthermore, fishing songs of the Anlo, even at home, have escaped most academic research. In this article, I address both shortcomings by focusing on Anlo fishing songs as performed by a migrant Anlo community living among the Fante in Cape Coast. Employing a variety of qualitative research techniques such as in-depth interviews, participant observation and a two-way inter-subjectivity, I explore the extent to which these fishing songs serve purposes beyond their perceived role of accompanying and easing work. Specifically, I examine how the fishing songs of the migrant Ewe community provide a solid basis for negotiating individual and collective memories and identities.</p> Eric Debrah Otchere ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 7 22 10.21504/amj.v10i3.2193 ‘YET NONE WITH TRUER FERVOUR SING’: CORONATION SONG AND THE (DE)COLONIZATION OF AFRICAN CHORAL COMPOSITION <p>In 1937, the Se(Sotho) composer, Mohapeloa published ‘Coronation Song’ a short a cappella choral work that celebrates the coronation of King George VI and which is ostensibly rooted in his colonial experience of the British Protectorate of Basutoland. It was reprinted in Morija in 1939 as ‘Coronation March’, by which time it was clear that this song’s political message was at odds with his other songs. Reprinted in 1945, 55, 66, and 80 with minor changes, the song becomes increasingly anachronistic. Mohapeloa suddenly rewrote it in the mid 1970s, 10 years after Lesotho gained independence, by transforming it into a patriotic song, ‘Lesotho Our Heritage’ (‘Lesotho Lefa la Rōna’). This article traces the song’s journey through decades of political change by means of a close hermeneutic reading of its text, musical language and structure, arguing that the music had always identified with two political tendencies, the one European and colonizing, the other American and decolonizing. It was this ambiguity that kept Mohapeloa’s interest and led to his last version of the song, finally published only in 2015.</p> Christine Lucia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 23 44 10.21504/amj.v10i3.2194 APPROACHES TO THE ADAPTATION OF SHONA NGOMA STYLES IN ZIMBABWEAN POPULAR MUSIC <p>The focus of this article is on Zimbabwean popular songs that adapt traditional Shona ngoma (drum) genres. Its purpose is twofold. First, the article identifies Zimbabwean popular musicians’ various approaches to the adaptation of traditional rhythmic patterns and song texts associated with certain ngoma genres. Second, it examines how these approaches influence the process of redefining the Shona musical tradition. It is argued that the traditional drumming patterns and styles incorporated within specific Shona popular songs have an important role in redefining this music culture within Zimbabwean popular music in general. A critical analysis is conducted on selected ngoma-influenced, Zimbabwean popular songs and the opinions expressed by the popular musicians who create the music. Three different approaches of adapting ngoma rhythms have been identified and are explained. These approaches are realised in the “integration” of musical and non-musical elements, “framework” as far as the imitation of structure is concerned, and “component”, as far as content is concerned.</p> Vimbai Chamisa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 45 61 10.21504/amj.v10i3.2195 METER, FEEL, AND PHRASING IN WEST AFRICAN BELL PATTERNS: THE EXAMPLE OF ASANTE KETE FROM GHANA <p>This article offers an analysis of west African bell patterns, positioning them as an entry to musical analysis of west African drumming. How can bell patterns be used as a tool by researchers to establish meter? What information do they provide about the “feel” of the music? And finally, how do these patterns interact with the underlying meter and feel, and what does this reveal about phrasing in west African music? To answer these questions, this article examines the case of the dawuro iron bell in Asante Kete drumming from Ghana. A close analysis of the Kete dawuro bell pattern reveals that the Kete pattern may be represented in an “African 12/8” or ternary-quadruple meter, emphasizes the importance of the half-time 2-feel embodying the Asante maxim of “not hurrying”, and demonstrates the highly motile and “goal-oriented” phrasing exemplified in Kete’s timeline patterns. To the broader west African and diasporic scholarly communities, this article presents a model for inferring meter, feel, and phrasing through close analysis of west African bell patterns.</p> Ben Paulding ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 62 78 10.21504/amj.v10i3.2196 GUIDED SYNCRETISM: REPACKAGING BADAGRY-OGU MUSIC IN THE CONTEXT OF LAGOS’ POSTCOLONIAL MODERNITY <p>At the Congress of Berlin (1884–85), the colonial governments created and imposed boundaries on the people of the continent, thereby fragmenting, for example, Gbe ethnolinguistic groups into different west-African countries, under the administrations of Britain, France and Germany. The Badagry-Ogu ethnic group, being the only Gbe ethnolinguistic group in Nigeria, which was colonised by the British government, was marginalized due to its positionality. Badagry-Ogu musical practices experienced the same situation and they have consistently waned over the years. These days, due to the effects of a postcolonial modernity in Lagos the indigenous is perceived as inferior, resulting in the condescending attitude of Badagry-Ogu youth towards their heritage. This paper describes the process of creating an experimental musical style, which syncretises Badagry-Ogu music and American jazz. This process involves the collection of music, engagement with performers, analysis and arranging of music and music making, with the thought of revitalising the interest of the youth trained in western music to engage more with their heritage, while making Ogu music more widely accessible in the global context. Supporting the argument for composition as a living archive, this paper features a new approach to musical conservation in Badagry Lagos.</p> Joseph Kunnuji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 79 94 10.21504/amj.v10i3.2197 THE BUZZ AESTHETIC AND MANDE MUSIC: ACOUSTIC MASKS AND THE TECHNOLOGY OF ENCHANTMENT <p>This article concerns the widespread preference for ‘buzzy’ timbres in African traditional musics; and, in particular, the ways in which this preference has been borne out in the Mande region of west Africa. The two main types of buzzing mechanisms in Mande music are metal buzzing rattles, which are attached to the neck or bridge of various string instruments, and mirlitons (vibrating membranes), which are placed over small holes on the resonating gourds of wooden xylophones. Over the last seventy to eighty years, an older and rougher ‘buzz aesthetic’ within Mande music has become increasingly endangered, with buzzing largely disappearing from instruments such as the kora and the ngoni in favour of a ‘cleaner’, more ‘Western’ aesthetic. Considered in a wider cultural context, I discuss the possible origins of the Mande buzz aesthetic and attempt to explore how the incorporation of buzzing sounds within Mande music might be connected to forms of ‘esoteric’, ‘supernatural’ and spiritual power.</p> Merlyn Driver ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 95 117 10.21504/amj.v10i3.2198 KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER: INDIGENOUS AFRICAN MUSIC IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MUSIC CURRICULUM <p>The need for redress in South African education includes calls for the decolonisation of the curriculum. In music education, this could imply a straight forward swap of content, replacing the ‘hegemonic’ Western classical canon with orally transmitted musical traditions in Africa. However, the picture clouds somewhat when the epistemological framework of the discipline of (Western) music is retained for the ‘decolonised’ curriculum, as this results in a disjuncture between the practice of African music and the way it is understood on a conceptual level in the curriculum. Drawing on the theories of Basil Bernstein and Karl Maton, this article probes the nature of the knowledge articulated in the South African secondary school, the basis of its specialisation, and its potential to equip students with knowledge that allows boundary crossing.</p> Mandy Carver ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 119 141 10.21504/amj.v10i3.2199 “CREATIVE ETHNOMUSICOLOGY” AND AFRICAN ART MUSIC: A CLOSE MUSICAL READING OF WOOD AND CLAY, KUNDI DREAMS AND UMRHUBHE GEESTE BY ANTHONY CAPLAN <p>This article deals with Anthony Caplan’s application of African art music through the lens of three works whose instrumentation and compositional processes result in pieces that transcend conventional boundaries. These works emerge as integrated artistic products exceeding the limitations of conventional musical expression. Through close musical readings of Wood and Clay, Kundi Dreams and Umrhubhe Geeste, Caplan’s employment of “creative ethnomusicology” (term first used by Akin Euba) becomes evident as his knowledge, experience and familiarity with a wide range of musical styles and cultures coalesce in the creation of original works of musical art. Combining either the udu, Kundi harp or umrhubhe with the oboe Caplan’s compositional amalgam merges sonic qualities from African and Western musical domains, including aspects of Eastern musicmaking. Evincing the attributes of African art music—labelled by Euba as African-European art music—Caplan’s three works represent a growing body of repertoire from South Africa (a relative latecomer to this style of writing) embodying the essence of African art music.</p> Jeffrey Brukman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 142 163 10.21504/amj.v10i3.2200 Kwaito’s Promise: Music and the Aesthetics of Freedom in South Africa. Gavin Steingo. 2016. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. 23 bw figures (maps, transcriptions and photos), 2 tables, bibliography, filmography, index, 327pp. Diane Thram ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 164 166 Staging Ghana: Artistry and Nationalism in State Dance Ensembles. Paul Schauert. 2015. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 29 online media examples at Ethnomusicology Multimedia Series, 15 figures, bibliography, index, 343 pp. Luis Gimenez Amoros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 165 170 African Drumming: The History and Continuity of African Drumming Traditions Cecilia Durojaye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 170 173 Oliver Mtukudzi Living Tuku Music in Zimbabwe. Jennifer W. Kyker. 2016. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. 25 images, 3 transcriptions, bibliography, index, 290 pp. Diane Thram ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 173 175 The Changing Faces of Aawambo Musical Arts. Minette Mans. 2017. Switzerland: Basel Afrika Bibliographien. 56 bw figures (photographs, sketches), 24 transcriptions, glossary, bibliography, index, 188pp. Boudina McConnachie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 175 177 Contributors to this issue ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 178 179 Subscribe now! ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 180 180 First International Bow Music Conference Proceedings ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 181 181 Understanding African music -- Listen and learn: music made easy -- For future generations: Hugh Tracey and the International Library of African Music -- Sound of Africa -- Music of Africa -- Historical recordings by Hugh Tracey -- ILAM and Ubuntu Publishing -- The Dhow Countries Music Academy: Zanzibar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 182 189 TRACKLIST VOLUME 10 NUMBER 3 • 2017 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 190 190 “Hangriba.” Performed by the Shatta Boys, Cape Coast, Ghana. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 [V] [V] Fishermen’s songs. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 [Track 1] [Track 1] Mama Sejlo singing Wayi jegba (Come and take the golden crown). ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 [Track 2] [Track 2] J Kunnuji singing Dagbe dagbe (Wonderful and marvellous). ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 [Track 3] [Track 3] J Kunnuji’s composition, Wayi jegba. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 [Track 4] [Track 4] J Kunnuji’s composition, Dagbe dagbe. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 [Track 5] [Track 5] Backmatter ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 10 3 [191] [191]