African Music : Journal of the International Library of African Music <p><cite>African Music</cite> (ISSN 0065-4019, eISSN 2524-2741) is an annual, peer-reviewed, accredited, academic journal established in 1954 by Hugh Tracey, founder of the International Library of African Music. The journal publishes original articles, not previously published, pertaining to contextualized studies of African music and related arts. Since it was re-launched in 2007 it features a CD compilation of audio examples illustrating the articles in each edition, which generally consists of field recordings from the article authors' research.</p> International Library of African Music (ILAM), Rhodes University en-US African Music : Journal of the International Library of African Music 0065-4019 Frontmatter Lee Watkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 [i] [i] 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2309 Editorial Lee Watkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 4 4 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2310 “MUSIC OF THE SLAVES” IN THE INDIAN OCEAN CREOLE ISLANDS: A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE SEYCHELLES <p>This article examines the development and expression of the moutya from Seychelles, in relation to the sega from Mauritius and the maloya from Reunion.&nbsp; These musical styles and their associated practices are recognised as evidence of an African heritage in the archipelagos. To better understand their connections and singularities, I utilise a diachronic and synchronic approach, at local and regional levels. The purpose is to demonstrate the mobility of musicians and the permeability of musical practices in these islands over time, using history and narratives from the colonial period (from the end of the seventeenth century) to the present, and fieldwork observations. This approach shows how music and dance elements from Africa are creolised on the islands and how they are further adapted as islanders travel around these islands. In the process one musical practice becomes many, although they fall into a matrix of styles sharing similar features. The article approaches the emergence and the transformation of (what would become) moutya in the Seychelles by first describing the emergence of musical creativity in the Mascarenes and Seychelles. This is followed by a discussion of the transition from a marginal and resistance form of music to new musical categories. Finally, the article describes circulations and musical exchanges between the islands, opening the door to a better understanding of Creole culture and music in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.</p> Marie-Christine Parent ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 1 24 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2311 SOKKIE DANCING IN PRETORIA: POPULAR AFRIKAANS MUSIC, DANCE, AND IDENTITY Afrikaans protest music influenced by rock has received a substantial degree of academic attention in recent years. While significant, the emphasis on Afrikaans protest music has left Afrikaans pop music largely unexamined. As this genre enjoys wide popularity amongst Afrikaners, this article considers this lacuna in academic inquiry. Afrikaans pop music is widely consumed in South Africa and is a major part of its music industry. In this article, I bring into focus how a strand of music, that might seem to avoid meaningful dialogue through superficial lyrics, forms part of an Afrikaner subculture and a strategy to preserve identity, norms, and values. In particular, I argue for a wider contextual understanding of music and the limitations of lyrical analysis to produce meaningful insight into music’s role in enabling participants to negotiate identity and place. Drawing on fieldwork conducted at Presley’s, a night club in Pretoria, I elucidate this process through the dialogue between Afrikaans music and sokkie dance. Cornelius A. Holtzhausen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 25 40 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2312 BEYOND NATIONHOOD: HAUL MUSIC FROM A POSTCOLONIAL PERSPECTIVE IN WESTERN SAHARA AND MAURITANIA This article examines the mobility of a precolonial musical style known as Haul music in two African countries, Western Sahara and Mauritania. Haul music is based on a modal system in which music and poetry are intrinsically related. This article traces the historical and musicological aspects of the Haul modal system in Western Sahara and Mauritania by offering an insight into how the postcolonial period has determined two narratives of Haul: a historical nationalism by way of revitalising the precolonial past in Mauritania; and political nationalism when reconsidering the ongoing process of decolonisation in Western Sahara and the exile of its people to the refugee camps of the Hamada desert since 1975. Further, this article shows how the mobility of the Haul modal system provides a reconsideration of a precolonial past in existing music cultures in North Africa. Luis Gimenez Amoros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 41 59 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2313 CONSTRUCTING DAGARA GYIL PEDAGOGY: THE LEGACY OF BERNARD WOMA Bernard Woma (1966–2018) was a virtuoso musician and global ambassador of Dagara music. From his extensive outreach, workshops, and touring, Bernard’s work teaching the Dagara gyil (xylophone) around the world is recognisable through his detailed compositions emphasising the use of Dagara musical forms. His founding of the Dagara Music Center in Medie, Ghana in 2000, provides instruction on Ghanaian music and dance to hundreds of non-Ghanaian students. Bernard’s pedagogical pieces for gyil introduce Dagara music systematically, building students’ technique and facility on the instruments in addition to ensuring student comprehension of Dagara musical practice. Based on sixteen years of apprenticeship with Bernard, this article investigates his pedagogy, detailing his methodical process through his use of cultural and educational scaffolding techniques theorised as “deliberate practice” by Ericsson and Pool (2016) and underscores the importance of recognising the individual African musician in academic and educational settings. Michael B. Vercelli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 60 67 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2314 APPALACHIAN BLACK FIDDLING: HISTORY AND CREATIVITY Discussions on Appalachian music in the United States most often evoke images of instruments such as the fiddle and banjo, and a musical heritage identified primarily with Europe and European Americans, as originators or creators, when in reality, many Europeans were influenced or taught by African-American fiddlers. Not only is Appalachian fiddling a confluence of features that are both African- and European-derived, but black fiddlers have created a distinct performance style using musical aesthetics identified with African and African-American culture. In addition to a history of black fiddling and African Americans in Appalachia, this article includes a discussion of the musicking of select Appalachian black fiddlers. Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 77 101 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2315 LIVENESS, MULTIFOCALITY, EAVESDROPPING IN ETHNOMUSICOLOGICAL FIELDWORK RESEARCH AT GHANAIAN FESTIVALS AND ROYAL FUNERALS Ethnomusicological research that involves live, sprawling, multifocal and integrated ceremonies often present liveness-induced challenges that may undermine the authenticity of the research outcomes. )is article describes multifocal and integrated music making performances such as festivals and royal funerals in Ghana and how the vagaries of liveness are largely responsible for nuanced peculiarities which every live musical performance assumes. )e article argues in favour of a central role for eavesdropping among informed participating audience members in data gathering efforts as an important strategy for dealing with liveness-induced contingencies in multifocal and integrated performance events. Moses Nii-Dortey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 102 118 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2316 ARRULLOS, CHIGUALOS AND ALABAOS: TRADITIONAL AFRO-ESMERALDENIAN MUSIC IN ECUADOR In this article I examine traditional Afro-Esmeraldenian music as manifested in religious and spiritual contexts. I discuss the repertoire’s formal musical aspects and its associated factors. I argue that the traditional music of the Afro-Esmeraldenian community is evidence of a performance culture that has taken on the characteristics of first nation Americans and Spanish colonisers, while retaining a distinct African identity mostly in the musical instruments such as the marimba, rattles and drums, in the polyrhythms and in the distinctive responsorial singing. )e religious sphere is a fundamental and representative space for understanding the cosmovision and symbolism of the Afro-Esmeraldenians, a population located on Ecuador’s northern Pacific coast, originally settled during forced migration of Africans to America between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. Here, traditional musical practices have survived through generations and reflects the importance of the spiritual world for this cultural group. In addition, it is likely that the religious sphere has contributed significantly to the validity and durability of the Afro-Esmeraldenian musical repertoire and the instruments making up the traditional ensemble. Fernando Palacios ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 11 2 119 140 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2317 BRASS BAND MUSIC IN GHANA: THE INDIGENISATION OF EUROPEAN MILITARY MUSIC Local brass bands have become an indispensable factor in weddings, processions, rituals of birth or death, at Christmas and New Year festivities in many parts of the globe. Remains of European brass bands are widely distributed throughout Africa, India, Indonesia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. )ese bands are of both military and missionary origin. They are an important component of the nineteenth and early twentieth-century colonial expressive culture. Despite their uniqueness and widespread presence across the world, brass bands have received limited attention in Ghana. )is paper aims to address this lack by offering a comprehensive account of the contemporary situation of brass band music in Ghana. I trace the history of this musical world and explore the diverse ways military and missionary activities have shaped amateur brass band musical activities in Ghana. I discuss the distribution and band formations across Ghana, viewing it in five sections that detail different types of brass bands; church, town, service, school and “sharbo” bands. I continue by looking at the beginning, development, workings and indigenisation of European military music in local popular culture and provide an account of brass band music as observed in Ghana today. I argue that indigenisation is not a straightforward process of adaptation, rather, indigenisation is a process of ongoing aesthetic tensions and differences resulting in new musical forms and new forms of socialisation organised around musical performance. John-Doe Dordzro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 11 2 141 163 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2318 In Hip hop Time: Music, Memory and Social Change in Urban Senegal Corey Harris ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 164 168 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2319 Sekuru’s Stories Sazi Dlamini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 169 170 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2320 Alternate African Reality: Electronic, Electroacoustic and Experimental Music from Africa and the Diaspora Basile Koechlin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 171 174 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2321 Dance in West Africa: Analysis and Description in Relation to Aspects of Communication Theory Heather van Niekerk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 175 177 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2322 The La Traviata Affair: Opera in the Age of Apartheid Alvin Petersen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 178 179 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2323 Journey of Song: Public Life and Morality in Cameroon Abigail Bradford ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 180 182 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2324 Contributors to this issue Lee Watkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 11 2 183 184 10.21504/amj.v11i2.2325 Annual Subscription Rates of ILAM Lee Watkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 185 185 Publications of ILAM Lee Watkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 11 2 186 196